Sunday, May 15, 2011

Internal structure of the earth

Internal structure of the earth

The evidence of the transverse,longitudinal and surface waves set in motion during an earthquake has led to the conclusion that the globe or the earth consists of four layers one above the other if we proceed from the core of the earth outwards or one below the other if we proceed downwards from the crust of the earth.

Layers of the earth 
There are mainly three layers of the earth
  • The crust
  • The mantle
  • The core 
According to German scientist Gracht
  • SIAL
  • SIMA
  • NIFE
According to Jeffrey
  • Top layer
  • Middle layer
  • Lower layer
According to Prof. Holmes
  • The crust
  • The substrutum
  • The core
Some scientist have divided the layers respectively
  • Lithosphere
  • Pyrosphere
  • Barysphere
Some images about the layers are given below

The top most layer of the earth which forms the earth crust is the lightest layer.On this layer which is also known as lithosphere the main earthquake waves travel at a nominal speed of 3.5 miles per second while the speed of transverse waves is still less only 2 miles per second.The specific gravity of this layer is only 2.7 and its mean thickness is about 20 km.It is made of granite rocks,silica and aluminium predominate.Therefore,It is named in short SIAL.

Next this or below this top layer is the region of basalt rocks and this is heavier then the topmost layer.The specific gravity is 3.5.Through this layer the main waves have the speed of 4-4.5 miles per second while the transverse waves move at a speed of 2-2.5 miles per second.In this layer silica and magnesium elements dominate and it is known as SIMA.The upper region of this second layer is a short of mixture of SIAL and SIMA.SIMA layer forms the bottom of the ocean and is known as the pyrosphere.

Finally comes the central core of the earth.This is situated at a depth of 1800 miles.This central mass is made of nickel and iron,therefore,it is known as in short NIFE.Its specific gravity is 8.The core contains a third of the entire mass of the earth.It is made of very hard minerals and the materials of which it is made are very dense about ten times dense as the rest of the earth.But because of instance heat and pressure this core is not solid ,nor is it liquid.It is directly not gaseous.Its structure is elastic and viscous.Because its high specific gravity the main or longitudinal waves are unable to pierce it while its viscousness is elasticity prevents the transverse waves from passing through it.Evidence of elasticity and viscousness is provided by the rocks involved in mountain building and now exposed by denudation.These rocks seem to have flowed without melting,It is rigid but it is not hard.   

Wednesday, January 12, 2011

The earth and its formation

The earth is a 3rd planet of the solar system.It is only one of the planet which is suitable for life.This planet is full of different living or                                                                                                                                         Our planet earth began approximately 4.6 billions years ago when a cloud known as solar nebula collapsed forming protostars and planetary systems.Life on earth began approximately 2 billion years later.Since the evolution of first life in the form of an aquatic anaerobe ,different kinds of organisms have evolved,prospered and died.Among all the planets of the solar system only the earth has atmosphere and it has necessary oxygen and nitrogen which are most important elements for living organisms.Without these two gasses there are Ar,Carbon-dioxide,Ne,He,Kr,Xe,H,Methane,Nitrusoxide etc. and dust and water vapor in the earth.These gasses and temperature are suitable to live in the earth.The earth has only one satellite named the moon.
       The rains comes from the sky on the earth,the rivers flow over by their own minds,the highest mountain range,ocean,plateau,plain land,volcano,grassland etc. the beautiful nature have made the earth as a haven.
     Book reference
  1. Essentials of ecology and environmental science-S.V.S. RANA
  2.  PRAKRITIK BHIUGOL-Dr.Rejuan hossain bhhuian, Md. Khayrul Anam

Sunday, March 13, 2011


Geomorphology comes from three Greek words-"geo" means the earth,"morpho" means form and "discourse" means discuss.Geomorphology is therefore a discourse on earth forms.

The terms geomorphology developed by geologist,probably WJ Mc Gee and Powell in the United States in the 1880.According to Mc Gee(1880)"Geomorphology originally defined as the genetic study of topographic forms.It investigates landforms and thye processes that fashion them.
Forces that works earth surface forms
  1. Endogenous
  2. Exogenous
It originates in the earth interiors.For example-volcanic activities,earthquake etc.It is very fast process

Exogenous force is originated from outer side of the earth.It is very slow process.For example weathering process.

Subject matter 
The subject matter of geomorphology are the earth's physical land surface,its landforms-rivers,hills,plain lands,beach,sand dunes etc.Some workers include submarine landforms,someone would add the landforms of others terrestrial type planets and satellites in the solar system-Mars,The Moon,Venus etc.

Branch of Geomorphology
  1. Qualitative or Descriptive
  2. Quantitative

Branch of Geomorphology
  1. Climatic Geomorphology
  2. Applied Geomorphology
  3. Environmental Geomorphology
Activities of Applied Geomorphology
  • Coustral erosion and beach management
  • Soil erosion protection
  • River management
  • Floodplain process management
  • The weathering of building
  • River channel restoration 
  • Environmental planing 
  • Environmental management
  • Land management
Geomorphometry is the another branch of geomorphology.It's activities are-
  • Measuring the morphometry of continental ice surface
  • Characterizing glacial troughts
  • Mapping sea floor terrian types
  • Guiding missiles
  • Assesing soil erosion
It also contributes to engineering,transportation,public works and military operation.

Instruments used in Geomorphometry
  • GIS-Geographical Information System
  • EDM-Electronic Distance Measurment
  • DEMs-Digital Elevation Models
  • DTMs-Digital Terrian Models
  • Fundamental of Geomorphology-Richard hugget 
  • The Study of Landforms-A Text Book Geomorphology-R.J Smaall
  • Geomorphology Pure and Applied
  • Principles of Physical Geography-A.Das Gopta and A.N. Kapoor
  • Internet